Monday, December 30, 2019

Chronic Kidney Disease Free Essay Example, 2000 words

Pathophysiologic changes Chronic Kidney disease affects the normal functioning of the body. According to National Kidney Foundation (NKF), the kidney is responsible for production of hormones called erythropoietin (EPO), which signals the body to make red blood cells (NKF, 2008). When one has kidney disease, the body may not be able to make EPO and this leads to reduced red blood cells which may lead to anemia. Since a combination or a group of cells of the same kind and which perform similar function makes a tissue, the effect of chronic kidney disease on cells affects formation of tissues. An arrangement of tissues of different types forms an organ. Chronic Kidney Disease affects production of red blood cells, a situation that leads to lose of blood. All organs in the body require blood for their operation. For example, the circulatory organ supplies blood from the heart to all parts of the body and lack of blood due to kidney failure may lead to total failure of body organs and lead to death. Clinical symptoms and complications Clinical manifestation on kidney failure shows that between stages 1 to 3 where glomerular filtration rate (GMF) is greater than 30 mL/min/1.73m2, patients with chronic kidney disease do not show symptoms of the disease (Arora, 2013). We will write a custom essay sample on Chronic Kidney Disease or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now When clinically tested for loss of GMF, they do not show water or electrolyte imbalance or metabolic disturbance symptoms. These symptoms turn clinically manifest with chronic kidney disease at stage four to five where the GFR is less than 30 mL/min/1.73m2. However, people with other conditions associated with positive symptoms of the disease turn vulnerable at earlier stages. Clinical manifestation in patients with the disease shows them to accumulate multiple toxins with unknown identity and spectrum. At the fifth stage also problems in metabolism show malnutrition of protein energy, muscle weakness and lean body mass loss. There are also changes in water and salt handling by the kidney, which cause peripheral edema and high blood pressure (Arora, 2013). Other clinical manifestations include pericarditis, encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms, among others. Complications with their underlying pathophysiology The possible complications of chronic kidney disease are anemia, which is a result of low hemoglobin levels. This limits the amount of oxygen that reaches many parts of the body (Nordqvist, 2013). The disease can also affect the central nervous system, which controls all body organs.

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